Monday, January 30, 2023

How Brooklyn Bridge Was Built

Lithograph Of The Great East River Bridge

Brooklyn Bridge | How It Was Built

The newly opened Brooklyn Bridge was a marvel of its time, and illustrations of it were popular with the public.

This elaborate color lithograph of the bridge is titled “The Great East River Bridge.” When the bridge first opened, it was known as that, and also simply as “The Great Bridge.” Eventually the name Brooklyn Bridge stuck.

The Cables And Roadways

To create the 4 main suspension cables, wires were pulled, strand by strand by a traveller rope from one tower to the next. Each cable held 6,289 of these wires, 331 wires to a strand and 19 stands to a cable.

While the cables were being strung, a major problem was discovered. The J. Lloyd Haigh company that was responsible for providing wire for the cables, was found to have given faulty wires. It was virtually impossible at the time to redo the wires, and so the story was kept as quiet as possible and 150 extra wires were added to each cable to strengthen them. The owner of the company, J. Lloyd Haigh was eventually put in jail.

The near-final straw occurred at the 10-year mark when the cables were completed and the roadways were beginning to be put down. Because of extreme delays from the companies providing the materials to create the roadways, the public began to become severely impatient. This, coupled with the fact that Washington Roebling hadnt actually set foot on the bridge in nearly 10 years due to his disability, made him a convenient scapegoat.

Despite the fact that the bridge engineers testified to the importance of Washington Roebling to the completion of the bridge, enough of the bridge trustees got together to vote on his removal. After a very tight vote, they were narrowly defeated.

I Premiati Nel Corso Degli Anni

Rassegna Ustica, una foto panoramica del 1965

LAccademia, da quando è stato fondato il Premio negli anni Sessanta ha premiato oltre duecento personalità di spicco.

Tra loro ci sono alcuni importanti nomi internazionali come il visionario Walt Disney , il pioniere fotografo e documentarista austriaco Hans Hass , il francese Jacques Dumas fondatore della C.M.A.S. e poi ancora loceanografa statunitense Sylvia Earle .

Moltissimi sono i nomi internazionali che andrebbero ricordati: i miti e le leggende, nelle parole di Fabio Ruberti, fondatore di IANTD Italia, Accademico e attuale Vice Presidente.

Tra questi ci sono J. Y. Cousteau , Luigi Ferraro , Enzo Maiorca , Albert Falco , Jacques Mayol e poi ancora George Bass , Peter Throckmorton , Honor Frost , Sebastiano Tusa , Ehud Galili .

Enzo Maiorca, Tridente doro del 1964, il primo recordman a raggiungere -101m in apnea

Da non dimenticare gli importantisismi premi conferiti a Folco Quilici , Gianni Roghi e Duilio Marcante ma anche a Faustolo Rambelli fondatore dell Historical Diving Society Italy e allo scrittore e ricercatore subacqueo Andrea Ghisotti , al campione di apnea Andrea Pellizzari , a Giorgio Caramanna attuale membro del Board direttivo e infine dellattuale Direttore dellAccademia: Edoardo Pavia esploratore subacqueo.

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The Brooklyn Bridge’s Temporary Footbridge Fascinated The Public

Illustrated magazines published depictions of the Brooklyn Bridge’s temporary footbridge and the public was riveted.

The idea that people would be able to cross the expanse of the East River by bridge seemed preposterous at first, which may account for why the narrow temporary footbridge strung between the towers was so fascinating to the public.

This magazine article begins:

For the first time in the history of the world, a bridge now spans the East River. The cities of New York and Brooklyn are connected and although the connection is but a slender one, still it is possible for any venturesome mortal to make the transit from shore to shore with safety.

The Elephants Showed Up

Pin on Antíguas B/N, 10 de 13

While the bridge did not collapse, that did not stop circus showman P.T. Barnum to demonstrate the bridges strength.

City officials were keen on putting peoples minds at ease about this newly constructed bridge and had asked P.T. Barnum to do just that.

So, on May 17, 1884 , Barnum brought along 21 elephants and 17 camels to walk the length of the bridge. Now, of course this was more of just a publicity event since the bridge is really able to handle over 100 times that weight.

But from then on, all has been well on the Brooklyn Bridge.

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Design Of The Brooklyn Bridge

In designing the Brooklyn Bridge, John Roebling drew heavily on the neo-Gothic architectural tradition. The Brooklyn Bridge was created as a suspension bridge however it incorporates elements of the hybrid cable-stayed design to achieve stability and an improved design. Some of the materials used in the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge include limestone obtained from Clark Quarry, granite from Vinalhaven Island, and Rosendale Cement. Some of the unique features of the bridge’s design include compartments and passageways that were constructed into the bridge’s anchorages. Several huge vaults exist beneath the Brooklyn Bridge, and they were essential to financing its construction as they were rented out mainly for the storage of wine due to the ideal conditions such as the low temperatures.

Who Built The Brooklyn Bridge A Disabled Engineer

Working together for the first time, the father and son developed concepts of how it could be accomplished and how the obstacles could be overcome. The project started well, but when it was only a few months underway a tragic accident on the site took the life of John Roebling. Washington was also paralyzed and disabled by his work on the site.

We told them so. Crazy men and their crazy dreams. Its foolish to chase wild visions.

Everyone had a negative comment to make and felt that the project should be scrapped since the Roeblings were the only ones who knew how the bridge could be built.

In spite of his handicap, Washington developed a code of communication with his wife. For 13 years Washington tapped out his instructions with his finger on his wifes arm, until the bridge was finally completed. Today the spectacular Brooklyn Bridge stands in all its glory as a tribute to the triumph of one mans indomitable spirit and his determination not to be defeated by circumstances. It stands too as a tangible monument to the love and devotion of his wife who for 13 long years patiently decoded the messages of her husband and told the engineers what to do.

The answer to Who Built the Brooklyn Bridge? is perhaps this is one of the best examples of a never-say-die attitude that overcomes a terrible physical handicap and achieves an impossible goal.

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The Opening Of The Brooklyn Bridge Was A Time Of Great Celebration

The completion and opening of the bridge was hailed as an event of historic magnitude.

This romantic image from one of New York City’s illustrated newspapers shows the symbols of the two separate cites of New York and Brooklyn greeting each other across the newly opened bridge.

On the actual opening day, May 24, 1883, a delegation including the mayor of New York and the President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur, walked from the New York end of the bridge to the Brooklyn tower, where they were greeted by a delegation led by Brooklyn’s mayor, Seth Low.

Below the bridge, US Navy vessels passed in review, and cannons in the nearby Brooklyn Navy Yard sounded salutes. Countless spectators watched from both sides of the river that evening as a massive fireworks display lit the sky.

Pedestrian And Vehicular Access

Building the Brooklyn Bridge: An Illustrated History

The bridge originally carried horse-drawn and rail traffic, with a separate elevated walkway along the centerline for pedestrians and bicycles. Since 1950, the main roadway has carried six lanes of automobile traffic. Due to the roadway’s height posted) and weight posted) restrictions, commercial vehicles and buses are prohibited from using this bridge. The two inside traffic lanes once carried elevated trains of the BMT from Brooklyn points to a terminal at Park Row via Sands Street. Streetcars ran on what are now the two center lanes until the elevated lines stopped using the bridge in 1944, when they moved to the protected center tracks. In 1950, the streetcars also stopped running, and the bridge was rebuilt to carry six lanes of automobile traffic.

The Brooklyn Bridge is accessible to vehicles from the Brooklyn entrances of Tillary/Adams Streets, Sands/Pearl Streets, and Exit 28B of the eastbound Brooklyn-Queens Expressway. In Manhattan, cars can enter from either direction of the FDR Drive, Park Row, Chambers/Centre Streets, and Pearl/Frankfort Streets. Pedestrian and bicycle access to the bridge from the Brooklyn side is from either Tillary/Adams Streets or a staircase on Prospect Street between Cadman Plaza East and West. In Manhattan, the pedestrian walkway is accessible from the end of Centre Street or through the unpaid south staircase of Brooklyn Bridge City Hall / Chambers Street subway station complex.

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Walking Across The Brooklyn Bridge

The main way to experience the bridge is to actually walk across it just as people did back in 1883. On either side of the bridge you will find pedestrian entrances that take you up onto the elevated walkway.

Once on the walkway, you can make your way across the bridge, under the cables and columns, with unparalleled views of the NYC skyline.

Esploratori Degni Di Nota

Licona della subacquea americana moderna, fondatore dellagenzia didattica Global Underwater Explorers Jarrod Jablonski ha ricevuto il Tridente dOro nel 2015. Quando gli è stato chiesto di spiegare cosa significasse esplorazione, ha risposto:

Per me, limpulso principale nellevoluzione umana è stata la nostra insaziabile curiosità e desiderio di esplorare il mondo in cui viviamo, e la mia è sempre stata una personalità follemente curiosa. Scoprire il mondo subacqueo è stata unesperienza che mi ha cambiato la vita e mi ha permesso di accedere a un mondo completamente nuovo pieno di avventure uniche. Ciò è particolarmente vero mentre sto esplorando nuove grotte o trovando nuovi relitti, perché è qui che sento un legame unico con la nostra storia di esseri umani suquesto antico pianeta.

Forse le esperienze più spirituali della mia vita hanno avuto luogo a migliaia di chilometri in una grotta mentreesploravo un luogo in cui nessun cuore umano ha mai battuto. In quei momenti, sento un senso di connessione e appagamento che nessuna parola può descrivere correttamente.

Nel 2021, Michele Geraci, un recordman italiano di immersioni subacquee e responsabile italiano dellattività sportiva olimpica nel settore dellapnea, quando ha ricevuto il Tridente dOro ha detto:

Il mio contributo, insieme a quello di alcuni colleghi, è stato importante per comunicare al IOC che stiamo lavorando in sicurezza, nonostante le grandi profondità raggiunte.

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The History And Photography Of The Brooklyn Bridge

The single greatest wonderment of the Brooklyn Bridge is not its size, beauty, function or even technology, but the fact that it was created by hand. When construction began, neither the light bulb nor the telephone had been invented. It is truly the Great Pyramid of bridges.

The fourteen-year construction took the lives of many men, killed the architect, and crippled his son. It was construction on a scale that had never been done before and without some of the modern conveniences that we now take for granted.

When Was The Brooklyn Bridge Built

Top 10 secrets of the Brooklyn Bridge

The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the most iconic pieces of American engineering as it spans a length of nearly 6,000 feet in New York City. The bridge was built spanning the East River to connect the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. The Brooklyn Bridge is among America’s most ancient roadway bridges as it was completed in 1883 after construction began in 1869. In the past, the Brooklyn Bridge was referred to as the East River Bridge as well as the New York Bridge. The name Brooklyn Bridge traces its origin to the letter published in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, and the local government officially adopted the name in 1915. The Brooklyn Bridge has earned several distinctions over the years with one of the most notable being declared a National Historic Landmark.

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Walk Along The Manhattan Bridge

Now, while a walk across the Brooklyn Bridge is a must do activity, why not also head across the Manhattan Bridge.

While not as scenic of a bridge, the Manhattan Bridge walkway gives you the chance to see the Brooklyn Bridge from a distance. This viewpoint is one of my favorite in the city as you get the bridge, Manhattan skyline and Statue of Liberty all in view.

It Wasnt Always Called The Brooklyn Bridge

Although, we now know this bridge to be the Brooklyn Bridge, that was not always the case.

During the construction of the bridge, it was known as the Great East River Bridge as well as the Great East River Suspension Bridge.

However, once it opened in 1883, the official name that it was given was the New York and Brooklyn Bridge.

It wasnt until 1915, that the name was then officially shortened to just the Brooklyn Bridge, and what we refer to it as today.

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Corrupt Politician Boss Tweed Played A Major Role In Getting The Brooklyn Bridge Built

Youve probably heard of one of the most notorious politicians in US history William M. Boss Tweed. Tweed was a powerful figure in New York Citys Democratic political machine in the late 1850s. He ran NYC government and stole millions from the city.

Naturally he wanted to be connected to the Brooklyn Bridge project from the beginning. He was involved in almost $65,000 in bribes to local politicians to make sure they threw their support to bridge construction. Construction on the bridge wasnt allowed to start until he was given a seat on the board. He became a major stockholder and was on the committee to manage bridge finances. His plan was to siphon money from bridge contracts, a practice he was quite familiar with.

Tweed was eventually convicted of stealing over $25 million to $200 million dollars from tax payers. He managed to escape from jail once, but was captured. Boss Tweed died at Ludlow Street Jail and is buried at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn.

Strolling On The Brooklyn Bridge’s Pedestrian Walkway

The Woman Who Built The Brooklyn Bridge

When the bridge first opened, there were roadways for horse and carriage traffic and railroad tracks which took commuters back and forth between terminals at either end. Elevated above the roadway and railroad tracks was a pedestrian walkway.

The walkway was actually the site of a great tragedy a week to the day after the bridge opened.

May 30, 1883 was Decoration Day . Holiday crowds flocked to the bridge, as it afforded spectacular views, being the highest point in either city. A crowd got very tightly packed near the New York end of the bridge, and panic broke out. People began to scream that the bridge was collapsing, and the crowd of holiday revelers stampeded and twelve people were trampled to death. Many more were injured.

The bridge, of course, had been in no danger of collapse. To prove the point, the great showman Phineas T. Barnum led a parade of 21 elephants, including the famous Jumbo, across the bridge a year later, in May 1884. Barnum pronounced the bridge to be very strong.

Over the years the bridge was modernized to accommodate automobiles, and the train tracks were eliminated in the late 1940s. The pedestrian walkway still exists, and it remains a popular destination for tourists, sightseers, and photographers.

And, of course, the bridge’s walkway is still quite functional. Iconic news photos were taken on September 11, 2001, when thousands of people used the walkway to flee lower Manhattan as the World Trade Centers burned behind them.

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Challenges Met By The Brooklyn Bridge

Talk of somehow bridging the East River began as early as 1800, when large bridges were essentially dreams. The advantages of having a convenient link between the two growing cities of New York and Brooklyn were obvious. But the idea was thought to be impossible because of the width of the waterway, which, despite its name, wasnt really a river. The East River is actually a saltwater estuary, prone to turbulence and tidal conditions.

Further complicating matters was the fact that the East River was one of the busiest waterways on earth, with hundreds of crafts of all sizes sailing on it at any time. Any bridge spanning the water would have to allow for ships to pass beneath it, meaning a very high suspension bridge was the only practical solution. And the bridge would have to be the largest bridge ever built, nearly twice the length of the famed Menai Suspension Bridge, which had heralded the age of great suspension bridges when it opened in 1826.

Bridge Workers Get The Bends

Construction began on the bridge in 1869, a few years before Boss Tweeds arrest, with Roeblings son, Washington A. Roebling, taking over. Sandhogs were hired to build the bridges foundations. These urban miners or compressed-air workers were often immigrants who earned $2 a day for hard, dangerous labor.

Armed with dynamite, the sandhogs cleared the boulders in the East River. Over time, they moved deeper to the bedrock, and eventually, they reached 78 feet in Manhattan and 44 feet in Brooklyn. To accomplish the task of building the foundation, they relied on caissons, wood boxes that use air pressure to keep water out. These were then filled with concrete to establish the foundation of the Brooklyn Bridge. Workers got to the caissons via airlocks, small iron containers filled with compressed air.

While the compressed air created a way for the sandhogs to work underwater, it allowed a dangerous quantity of gas to enter their bloodstreams. This dissolved gas would be released as they resurfaced, causing a host of side effects, including convulsions, paralysis, and even death. This was known as caisson disease or the bends.

During the building of the Brooklyn Bridge, upwards of 100 workers got the bends. About 25 died as a result of either caisson disease, getting struck by falling rubble, or falling from the bridge.

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